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Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Motion Analysis of the Upper Right Limb Movements in the Bowing Arm of Violinists Through a Digital Photogrammetric Method

Nihan Yagisan, Hakan Karabork, Ayhan Goktepe, Nazim Karalezli
From: Medical Problems of Performing Artists: Volume 24 Number 4: Page 181 (December 2009)

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Abstract: Violin is one of the most widely taught string instruments in the world. The positions of the right upper arm, elbow, and wrist and the vertical inclinations of the arm and forearm differ among violin players. The objective of this study was to measure the angular changes in the wrist and elbow joints, as well as the vertical inclinations of the arm, forearm, and hand, which are active in basic bow drives in violin playing, by using digital photogrammetric methods. In this way, we could determine the angular changes of the joints during bow drives, allowing us to incorporate this information into teaching proper bow techniques as well as preventing possible problems due to excessive force. This study involved nine male university violin players. Certain anatomic areas were marked on the players for measurement. The wrist and elbow joints of the right upper extremity were filmed on a calibrated test field using a metric camera, and images were transferred to the computer for photogrammetric evaluation using Pictran software (Technet GmbH, Germany). The angles of the elbow and wrist as well as the vertical inclinations of the arm, forearm, and hand of the right arm were ascertained from these marks on the photographs. The study showed that there are significant inter-individual differences in the angular changes and inclinations on the E string and in the vertical inclinations on all strings among the different players.

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