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Towards Consensus on Clinical Assessment of Embouchure in Brass Players: A Delphi Study

Kees H. Woldendorp, Elise Ploos van Amstel, Hans Boschma, Anne M. Boonstra, Hans J. Arendzen, Michiel F. Reneman
From: Medical Problems of Performing Artists: Volume 34 Number 1: Page 6 (March 2019)

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Abstract: AIMS: The objective of this study was to determine the content validity of an assessment instrument for embouchure (the 'CODE of Embouchure') which covers the main aspects of the construct of embouchure in brass players. METHODS: The study design followed the Delphi technique. A select panel of 35 international experts gave their opinion via a three-round digital Delphi survey as to whether the instrument as a whole, and its items, adequately measure the construct of embouchure. Criteria for consensus and whether items should go through to the next Delphi round were pre-determined. Data were independently analyzed by two researchers. The CREDES guidelines were used for conducting and reporting of the study. RESULTS: Consensus was reached over 64% and 73% of the closed questions in the first and third rounds, respectively. A second round was necessary to resolve intra- and inter-expert contradicting information. Finally, 5 items were added to the instrument, 3 items were removed, and 23 items were adjusted. Consensus was reached in 63 items (98%). The final multi-item assessment instrument consists of 4 domains and 64 items. CONCLUSIONS: Content validity of most aspects of the CODE of embouchure instrument was established.
https://doi.org/10.21091/mppa.2019.1003

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